Wednesday, September 26, 2007
Antibiotic prescription and prevalence rate in the outpatient paediatric population: analysis of surveys published during 2000-2005.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Sep 21
Rossignoli A, Clavenna A, Bonati M.
Laboratory for Mother and Child Health, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, via G. La Masa 19, 20156, Milan, Italy, firstname.lastname@example.org.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate antibiotic paediatric consumption data in the community setting using data from studies published between 2000 and 2005 and to compare inter- and intra-country antibiotic prescribing patterns.
METHODS: A literature search was performed in EMBASE and MEDLINE to identify pharmacoepidemiological studies published between 2000 and 2005.
RESULTS: Large differences between studies were found, with significant heterogeneity in epidemiological indicators. Only 20 studies reporting comparable drug prescription data were considered in the analysis, all of which were from the USA, Canada, North-Central Europe and Italy. Pre-school children were reported as comprising the most exposed age group to antibiotic therapy (prevalence 72%; prescription rate 2.2 prescriptions/person per year). In the overall child and adolescent population (less or equal to 19 years), prevalence varied from 14 to 57% (mean 34%), and the prescription rate from 0.2 to 1.3 prescriptions/person per year. Relevant inter-country qualitative and quantitative differences in antibiotic prescribing were apparent, although these were observed in only a few countries: prevalence was higher in Italy and Canada (prevalence range 42-57%) and lower in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (prevalence range 14-21%). Penicillins were the most prescribed antibiotics in all cases (40-70% of antibiotic prescriptions), followed by macrolides (16-45%), while cephalosporins accounted for a large proportion of the prescriptions in Italy (30-40%) and Canada, but were practically absent in North European prescriptions.
CONCLUSION: Comparative drug utilisation studies on antibiotic use in children are needed, as are improvements in regulatory and educational programmes aimed at limiting the number prescriptions given for antibiotics. Both approaches would address public health problems, such as bacterial resistance and safety and elevated costs, related to the use and misuse of these drugs.
PMID: 17891535 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Wednesday, September 12, 2007
Scand J Prim Health Care. 2007 Sep
Lindsdal Primary Health Centre, Kalmar, Sweden.
Keywords: Acute otitis media; antibiotics; AOM; children; family practice; general practice; PcV; phenoxymethylpenicillin; primary healthcare
Objective. To study the clinical recovery from acute otitis media (AOM) in children, 2-16 years of age, managed with or without treatment with phenoxymethylpenicillin (PcV). Design. An open, prospective randomized trial. Children aged between 2 and 16 years, presenting with one- or double-sided AOM (without perforation) with symptom duration of less than four days, were included. The children were randomized to PcV for five days or to no primary antibiotic treatment. A health score and compliance were registered on a daily basis for seven days.
Setting. A total of 32 health centres and 72 GPs in south-east Sweden. Subjects. Children aged 2-16 presenting with earache. Main outcome measures. Recovery time, symptom duration, frequency of complications (up to three months) and consumption of healthcare services independent of treatment with or without antibiotics.
Results. A total of 179 patients carried out the trial; 92 were randomized to PcV, 87 to no primary antibiotic treatment. The median recovery time was four days in both groups. Patients who received PcV had less pain (p <0.001)>
Conclusions. Our investigation supports that PcV treatment of AOM does not affect the recovery time or complication rates. PcV provided some symptomatic benefit in the treatment of AOM in otherwise healthy children, aged 2-16 years.Informaworld