Friday, November 30, 2007

National trends in emergency department antibiotic prescribing for children with acute otitis media, 1996 2005.

National trends in emergency department antibiotic prescribing for children with acute otitis media, 1996 2005.

Acad Emerg Med. 2007 Dec

Fischer T, Singer AJ, Lee C, Thode HC Jr.
Department of Emergency Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

OBJECTIVES: Withholding antibiotics in nontoxic children with acute otitis media (AOM) is now recommended to reduce bacterial resistance rates. Using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), the authors describe the national trends for prescribing antibiotics in children with AOM presenting to emergency departments (EDs) in the United States over the past decade. The authors hypothesized that the rates of prescribing antibiotics would decline over time.

METHODS: This was a retrospective study of NHAMCS databases. A national sampling of ED visits for 1996-2005 was used to identify trends in ED prescription of antibiotics to patients with AOM. The National Drug Code Directory Drug Classes were used to identify type of antibiotic prescribed. Frequency and type of antibiotic prescription patterns over time were evaluated.

RESULTS: There were 2.6 million and 2.1 million ED visits for AOM during the first and last years of the study. Children ages 2-12 years accounted for about 40% of all ED visits for AOM, with another 40% in the younger than 2 years age group and 20% in the older than 12 years of age group. During the first and last year of the study, 79.2% and 91.3% of the patients with AOM were prescribed antibiotics, respectively. There was a slight increasing trend in the proportion prescribed antibiotics over time (p = 0.02). The rates of use of antibiotics for AOM were similar in all three age groups.

CONCLUSIONS: There was a slight increase in the percentage of children with AOM who were prescribed antibiotics in the ED between 1996 and 2005. There was also no change in the patterns of prescribing antibiotics.

PMID: 18045893 [PubMed - in process]

Thursday, November 22, 2007

Speed of bacterial kill with a fluoroquinolone compared with nonfluoroquinolones: clinical implications and a review of kinetics of kill studies.

Speed of bacterial kill with a fluoroquinolone compared with nonfluoroquinolones: clinical implications and a review of kinetics of kill studies.
Adv Ther. 2007 Sep-Oct

Lichtenstein SJ, Wagner RS, Jamison T, Bell B, Stroman DW.
Associate Clinical Professor of Pediatrics and Surgery, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria and Chicago, Illinois Eye Center, Peoria, Illinois.

It is important to rapidly eradicate bacteria in patients with bacterial conjunctivitis in order to decrease disease transmission, shorten symptom duration, and minimize the emergence of resistant bacteria. This paper presents the results of kinetics of kill studies on 3 commonly isolated pathogens in bacterial conjunctivitis.

A more rapid speed of kill with moxifloxacin compared with other nonfluoroquinolone antibiotics (tobramycin, gentamicin, polymyxin B/trimethoprim, or azithromycin) was observed in Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae infections. Moxifloxacin achieved a 99.9% kill at approximately 1 h for S aureus, 2 h for S pneumoniae, and 30 min for H influenzae.

In comparison, other nonfluoroquinolone therapies took longer to achieve a bactericidal (3-log) kill and some demonstrated no change or an increase in bacterial growth. Based on these findings, it is concluded that moxifloxacin kills bacteria more rapidly than nonfluoroquinolone topical ocular antibiotics.

PMID: 18029337 [PubMed - in process]

Thursday, November 15, 2007

Telavancin: A novel lipoglycopeptide antimicrobial agent.

Telavancin: A novel lipoglycopeptide antimicrobial agent

Ryan J. Attwood and Kerry L. LaPlante

RYAN J. ATTWOOD, PHARM.D., is Postgraduate Year 1 Pharmacy Resident, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI; at the time of writing he was Pharm.D. degree candidate, University of Rhode Island, Providence. KERRY L. LAPLANTE, PHARM.D., is Assistant Professor of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Rhode Island, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Providence.

Address correspondence to Dr. LaPlante at the Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Rhode Island, Veterans Affairs Medical Center (151), Research Building, 830 Chalkstone Avenue, Providence, RI 02908 (


The pharmacology, activity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy, safety, dosage, and place in therapy of telavancin are reviewed.


Telavancin is a lipoglycopeptide antimicrobial agent under development for use in the treatment of multidrug-resistant gram-positive infections. Telavancin, like vancomycin, inhibits cell-wall biosynthesis by binding to late-stage cell-wall precursors. However, unlike vancomycin, telavancin also depolarizes the bacterial cell membrane and disrupts its functional integrity.

Telavancin has concentration-dependent bactericidal activity and is active against gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic organisms. It is highly protein bound (93%) and has a volume of distribution of 115 mL/kg and a half-life of approximately eight hours. Telavancin is eliminated renally, and a dosage reduction is required in renally impaired patients. Animal models suggest that telavancin may be effective in the treatment of soft-tissue infections, bacteremia, endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia caused by gram-positive pathogens. Telavancin was not inferior to standard treatment for complicated skin and soft-tissue infections in two Phase II clinical trials and two Phase III clinical trials.

A new drug application has been submitted for this indication, and Phase III trials to evaluate use in hospital-acquired-pneumonia, including infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are planned. Adverse effects include metallic taste, nausea, vomiting, headache, foamy urine, Q-Tc-interval prolongation, hypokalemia, and serum creatinine increases. In trials evaluating telavancin for skin and soft-tissue infections, the dosage was 10 mg/kg i.v. once daily.


Telavancin is a promising new agent for gram-positive infections and may offer an alternative to vancomycin for MRSA-associated infections.

American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy

Saturday, November 10, 2007

Daptomycin in the Treatment of Bacteremia

Daptomycin in the Treatment of Bacteremia
George Sakoulas MDa, Yoav Golan MD, MSb, Kenneth C. Lamp PharmDc, , , Lawrence V. Friedrich PharmDc and Rene Russo PharmDc aNew York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, USAbTufts New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USAcCubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Lexington, Massachusetts, USA. Available online 28 September 2007.


The aim of this study was to describe the clinical experience with daptomycin in the treatment of bacteremia. Patients with a diagnosis of catheter-related or non–catheter-related bacteremia and no other concurrent infection were identified from the Cubicin Outcomes Registry and Experience (CORE) 2004. Treatment success was determined by investigators using protocol criteria and defined as cure or improvement. Of 168 patients with bacteremia, 126 were clinically evaluable. Of those, 52 (41%) patients were aged ≥66 years, 54 (43%) received daptomycin in an intensive care unit, and 25 (20%) had chronic renal failure. The most common pathogens isolated were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (33%), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (30%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (30%). Of 126 patients, 86% received daptomycin after previous antibiotic therapy and most (69%) received concomitant antibiotics with daptomycin. Daptomycin therapy was started at a median dose of 4.0 mg/kg (range, 2.5 to 9.2 mg/kg). Daptomycin therapy had an overall clinical success rate of 89%. Clinical success was independent of baseline renal function, daptomycin dose, pathogen, first-line use, or concomitant antibiotic therapy. These results support the findings of a recent study in which daptomycin was demonstrated to be an effective option in the treatment of S aureus bacteremia. Data in the current study provide insight into the clinical experience using daptomycin to treat bacteremia caused by other gram-positive pathogens. Given the limitations of retrospective studies and lack of follow-up data, additional studies are needed to make definitive evaluations with these pathogens.

Science Direct

Wednesday, November 07, 2007

Goniothalamus species: a source of drugs for the treatment of cancers and bacterial infections?

Goniothalamus species: a source of drugs for the treatment of cancers and bacterial infections?
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2007 Sep

Wiart C.
School of Pharmacy, The University of Nottingham (Malaysia Campus), Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia.

Keywords: acetogenins, antibacterial, antifungal, apoptosis, cytotoxic, foodborn bacteria, Goniothalamus, Goniothalamus scortechinii, nosocomial, styryl-lactones.

Irrespective of the presence of cytotoxic acetogenins and styryl-lactones in the genus Goniothalamus, only 22 species in the genus Goniothalamus, out of 160 species (13.7%) have so far been investigated. In an effort to promote further research on the genus Goniothalamus which could represent a source of drugs for the treatment of cancers and bacterial infections, this work offers a broad analysis of current knowledge on Goniothalamus species. Therefore, it includes (i) taxonomy (ii) botanical description (iii) traditional medicinal uses and (iv) phytochemical and pharmacological studies. We discuss the molecular mechanisms of actions of acetogenins and styryl-lactones, with some emphasis on the possible involvement of protein kinase, Bax and TRAIL receptors in the cytotoxic effects of styryl-lactones. We also report (v) the growth inhibition of several nosocomial bacteria by Goniothalamus. scortechinii. The crude methanol extract of G. scortechinii showed a good and broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

Full Text Article

Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Biodegradable gentamicin delivery systems for parenteral use for the treatment of intracellular bacterial infections

Biodegradable gentamicin delivery systems for parenteral use for the treatment of intracellular bacterial infections

November 2007, Vol. 4, No. 6, Pages 677-688

Carlos Gamazo‌1 PhD, Biology, Full Professor of Microbiology, Vice Chairman of Department Council of Microbiology, Sandra Prior‌1 PhD, Pharmacy, María Concepción Lecároz‌1 PhD, Pharmacy, Ana Isabel Vitas‌1 PhD, Biology, Associate Professor of Microbiology, Miguel Angel Campanero‌2 PhD, Pharmacy, Associate Professor of Pharmacology, Guiomar Pérez‌2,3, Master in Science, Biology, David Gonzalez‌3 PhD, Biology, Associate Professor of Microbiology & María Jose Blanco-Prieto‌3 PhD, Pharmacy, Research Scientist, Associate Professor of Pharmaceutical Technology

1University of Navarra, Department of Microbiology, 31080 Pamplona, Spain +34 948 425 688; +34 948 425 649;

2Clínica Universitaria, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, 31080 Pamplona, Spain
3University of Navarra, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, 31080 Pamplona, Spain
† Author for correspondence

Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside with a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity. However, as a highly water-soluble drug, it penetrates cells poorly. This constitutes a particularly important drawback for treating intracellular bacterial infections. This major hurdle may be solved by the use of vectors to deliver and target bioactive agents to the intracellular sites of infection. Thus, in the case of antimicrobials, drug delivery systems may help to increase their therapeutic index in intracellular locations. The development and evolution of pharmaceutical forms of gentamicin for the parenteral treatment of intracellular pathogens is reviewed in this paper.

Expert Opinion

Monday, November 05, 2007

Xenorhabdus antibiotics: a comparative analysis and potential utility for controlling mastitis caused by bacteria

Xenorhabdus antibiotics: a comparative analysis and potential utility for controlling mastitis caused by bacteria

J Appl Microbiol. 2007 Nov 1

Furgani G, Böszörményi E, Fodor A, Máthé-Fodor A, Forst S, Hogan JS, Katona Z, Klein MG, Stackebrandt E, Szentirmai A, Sztaricskai F, Wolf SL.

Department of Genetics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Eötvös University, Budapest, Hungary.

Aims: The role of antibiotics produced by bacterial symbionts of entomopathogenic nematodes is to suppress growth of microbes in the soil environment. These antibiotics are active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and were tested against mastitis isolates from dairy cows.

Methods and Results: Two bioassays were adapted for Xenorhabdus antibiotics; an overlay method on agar plates, and serially diluted, cell-free, Xenorhabdus cultures. The antimicrobial activities of the liquid cultures of 13 strains from five Xenorhabdus species were further evaluated. Antimicrobial activities of the type strains of X. nematophila, X. budapestensis and X. szentirmaii were tested on mastitis isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae with both bioassays. A previously reported antibiotic from X. nematophila, nematophin, was synthesized in three steps from tryptamine and 4-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid sodium salt.

Conclusions: The antibiotics of all three Xenorhabdus strains were powerful in either bioassay, but the sensitivity of the isolates differed from each other. While Kl. pneumoniae was the least susceptible, Staph. aureus had the highest sensitivity to each Xenorhabdus strain. Xenorhabdus szentirmaii and X. budapestensis were more potent antibiotic producers than X. nematophila, and raceme nematophin was ineffective against all mastitis isolates.

Significance and Impact of the Study: These results indicate that Xenorhabdus antibiotics are effective against mastitis isolates and should be further evaluated for their potential in mastitis control or prevention.

PMID: 17976177 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Friday, November 02, 2007

Antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a paradigm of adaptive power.

Antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a paradigm of adaptive power.

Curr Opin Microbiol. 2007 Oct 5

de Lencastre H, Oliveira D, Tomasz A.

Laboratory of Microbiology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA; Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica (ITQB) da Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), 2780 Oeiras, Portugal.

Nothing documents better the spectacular adaptive capacity of Staphylococcus aureus than the response of this important human and animal pathogen to the introduction of antimicrobial agents into the clinical environment. The effectiveness of penicillin introduced in the early 1940s was virtually annulled within a decade because of the plasmid epidemics that spread the ss-lactamase gene through the entire species of S. aureus. In 1960 within one to two years of the introduction of penicillinase resistant ss-lactams (methicillin), methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified in clinical specimens. By the 1980s, epidemic clones of MRSA acquired multidrug resistant traits and spread worldwide to become one of the most important causative agents of hospital acquired infections. In the early 2000s, MRSA strains carrying the Tn1546 transposon-based enterococcal vancomycin resistant mechanism were identified in clinical specimens, bringing the specter of a totally resistant bacterial pathogen closer to reality. Then, in the late 1990s, just as effective hygienic and antibiotic use policies managed to bring down the frequency of MRSA in hospitals of several countries, MRSA strains began to show up in the community.

PMID: 17921044 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Thursday, November 01, 2007

Reducing antibiotic overuse: a call for a national performance measure for not treating asymptomatic bacteriuria.

Reducing antibiotic overuse: a call for a national performance measure for not treating asymptomatic bacteriuria.

Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Nov

Gross PA, Patel B.
Department of Medicine, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ 07601, USA.

Positive urinary tract culture results often represent asymptomatic bacteriuria, which does not need to be treated with antimicrobial agents. Avoiding treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults should reduce the risk of development of antibiotic resistance and is consistent with the Infectious Diseases Society of America and US Preventive Services Task Force guidelines on bacteriuria. A similar approach for not treating upper respiratory illnesses with antibiotics was initiated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We propose that a hospital and ambulatory performance measure should be developed for not treating asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults. In addition, such an effort would aid hospitals in confronting the proposal of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (to be implemented in 2009) to not pay the expenses associated with catheter-associated urinary tract infection.

University of Chicago Press