Monday, August 20, 2007

Efficacy of azithromycin in the treatment of childhood typhoid Fever.

Efficacy of azithromycin in the treatment of childhood typhoid Fever.
Mymensingh Med J. 2007 Jul
Islam MN, Rahman ME, Rouf MA, Islam MN, Khaleque MA, Siddika M, Hossain MA.
Dr Md Nazrul Islam, Assistant Registrar, Department of Paediatrics, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh.

An intervention study was carried out in Paediatric wards for a period of one year from January 2003 to December 2003 to determine the efficacy and safety of azithromycin in the treatment of uncomplicated childhood typhoid fever.

A total of 50 cases were enrolled in the study. The inclusion criteria of the cases were: documented fever for more than 7 days plus two or more of the following clinical features: toxic appearance, abdominal tenderness, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, diarrhoea, constipation and coated tongue plus positive Widal test and/or blood culture positivity.

Patients who had complication like gastrointestinal tract (GIT) haemorrhage; intestinal perforation and/or shock were excluded from the study. Data were collected in a structured questionnaire. Azithromycin was given at a dose of 10mg/kg /day for a period of 07 days. The time to defervescence was 3.82+/-1.49 days. The minimum defervescence time was 02 days and maximum was 07 days. Clinical cure rate was 94%. No serious adverse effect was noted related to azithromycin therapy except nausea, vomiting, and jaundice. Prior treatment with antibiotics did not affect defervescence time (P>0.05).

Pre-treatment febrile period has got positive and linear correlation with clinical response (r = +0.593). It was found that once daily administration of oral azithromycin for seven days in the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever was effective and reasonably safe.


Friday, August 03, 2007

The future of natural products as a source of new antibiotics

The future of natural products as a source of new antibiotics
Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2007 Aug

Luzhetskyy A, Pelzer S, Bechthold A.
Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Institut für Pharmazeutische Wissenschaften, Pharmazeutische Biologie und Biotechnologie, Stefan-Meier-Straße 19, D-79194 Freiburg, Germany.

One reason for the current crisis in antibiotic development is the low return on investment, which is intrinsic to anti-infective drug development. Despite this, smaller pharmaceutical companies are attempting to address the medical need for new antibiotics. Natural products have played a major role in antibiotic drug discovery since 1941 when penicillin was introduced to the market, and currently natural products are again the most important source for promising drug candidates. This review discusses novel methods and technologies that will increase the success rate for identifying novel antibiotics from natural sources.

PMID: 17668363 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

New aspects of natural products in drug discovery
Trends Microbiol. 2007 Jun

Lam KS.
Nereus Pharmaceuticals Inc., 10480 Wateridge Circle, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

During the past 15 years, most large pharmaceutical companies have decreased the screening of natural products for drug discovery in favor of synthetic compound libraries. Main reasons for this include the incompatibility of natural product libraries with high-throughput screening and the marginal improvement in core technologies for natural product screening in the late 1980s and early 1990 s. Recently, the development of new technologies has revolutionized the screening of natural products. Applying these technologies compensates for the inherent limitations of natural products and offers a unique opportunity to re-establish natural products as a major source for drug discovery. Examples of these new advances and technologies are described in this review.

Science Direct