Friday, November 28, 2008

Antibiotic choices by paediatric residents and recently graduated paediatricians for typical infectious disease problems in children.

Antibiotic choices by paediatric residents and recently graduated paediatricians for typical infectious disease problems in children.

Paediatr Child Health. 2006 Dec

Smart K, Lemay JF, Kellner JD.
Pediatric Emergency Medicine.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate antibiotic choices and recommendations for duration of therapy made by paediatric residents (PRs) and recently graduated paediatricians (RGPs) in several typical infectious disease conditions.

METHODS: In autumn 2002, a two-page questionnaire was sent to 276 core PRs in Canadian residency programs and to a random selection of 276 RGPs from across Canada. The questionnaire described 10 scenarios: otitis media, pharyngitis, sinusitis, bronchopneumonia, lobar pneumonia, meningitis, pyelonephritis, osteomyelitis, cellulitis, and fever and neutropenia. The participants were asked primarily about initial antibiotic selection and duration of treatment for each scenario.

RESULTS: There were 251 participants (overall response rate of 45%). The two most common antibiotic recommendations constituted 85% or more of the total for all scenarios except acute otitis media, sinusitis, cellulitis, and fever and neutropenia. There was a twofold or more difference in the range of recommended duration of treatment for all scenarios and a threefold or more difference for sinusitis, meningitis and osteomyelitis. PRs were more likely than RGPs to use broader spectrum cephalosporins for pneumococcal pneumonia (33% versus 15%, respectively; P=0.001) and to treat sinusitis for just five to 10 days (39% versus 22%, respectively; P=0.01). Also, 33% of all participants recommended amoxicillin/clavulanate or a cephalosporin rather than amoxicillin for sinusitis.

CONCLUSION: PRs and RGPs made similar and reasonable recommendations, largely in line with published guidelines, for most of the infectious disease scenarios presented. For some conditions, a significant minority of respondents unnecessarily recommended broad-spectrum antibiotics. The most variable responses were for duration of treatment, reflecting the lack of certainty in the published evidence base for many conditions.

PMID: 19030247 [PubMed - in process]

Aerosol antibiotics: considerations in pharmacological and clinical evaluation.

Aerosol antibiotics: considerations in pharmacological and clinical evaluation.

Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2008 Nov 24.

Dudley MN, Loutit J, Griffith DC.
Mpex Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA 92121, United States.

Increasing antibiotic resistance and lack of R&D productivity of new classes of antimicrobial agents directed against Gram-negative bacteria necessitate new approaches to maximize the efficacy of existing classes of drugs. Direct administration of drugs to the lung via the inhalational route provides for high concentrations at the target site of action in patients with pulmonary infections. The efficacy of aerosol antibiotic administration has been best demonstrated with aerosolized tobramycin in the management of chronic infections because of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Unfortunately, inconvenient regimens leading to poor patient adherence to therapy, and the increasing frequency of multidrug-resistant strains have necessitated the search for additional agents. Integration of aerosol science, PK-PD and clinical trial designs are important for the development and evaluation of these new aerosol agents in both chronic infections (e.g. CF and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) as well as acute infections (e.g. bacterial pneumonias).

This review outlines important considerations and recent progress in this emerging area.


Saturday, November 22, 2008

Efficacy of oral beta-lactam versus non-beta-lactam treatment of uncomplicated cellulitis.

Efficacy of oral beta-lactam versus non-beta-lactam treatment of uncomplicated cellulitis.

Am J Med. 2008
Madaras-Kelly KJ, Remington RE, Oliphant CM, Sloan KL, Bearden DT.
College of Pharmacy, Idaho State University, Boise, Idaho, USA.

BACKGROUND: Preferred therapy for purulent skin and soft tissue infections is incision and drainage, but many infections cannot be drained. Empiric therapies for these infections are ill-defined in the era of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

METHODS: A multicenter retrospective cohort study of outpatients treated for cellulitis was conducted to compare clinical failure rates of oral beta-lactam and non-beta-lactam treatments. Exclusion criteria included purulent infection requiring incision and drainage, complicated skin and soft tissue infection, chronic ulceration, and intravenous antibiotics. Failure rates were compared using logistic regression to adjust for both covariates associated with failure and a propensity score for beta-lactam treatment.

RESULTS: Of 2977 patients, 861 met inclusion criteria and were classified by treatment: beta-lactam (n = 631) or non-beta-lactam therapy (n = 230). Failure rates were 14.7% versus 17.0% (odds ratio [OR] 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-1.31) for beta-lactam and non-beta-lactam therapy, respectively. Failure was associated with: age (P = .02), acute symptom severity (P = .03), animal bites (P = .03), Charlson score > 3 (P = .02), and histamine-2 receptor antagonist use (P = .09). Relative efficacy of beta-lactam therapy was greater after adjustment for factors associated with failure but remained statistically insignificant (adjusted OR 0.81, 95% CI, 0.53-1.24); adjusted including propensity score covariate (OR 0.71, 95% CI, 0.45-1.13). Discontinuation due to adverse effects differed between beta-lactam (0.5%) and non-beta-lactam (2.2%) therapies (P = .04).

CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in clinical failure between beta-lactam and non-beta-lactam antibiotics for the treatment of uncomplicated cellulitis. Increased discontinuation due to adverse events with non-beta-lactam therapy was observed.


Providing outpatient antibiotic therapy for cellulitis in primary care.

Providing outpatient antibiotic therapy for cellulitis in primary care.
Br J Community Nurs. 2008 Nov 7

Nazarko L.

Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) is becoming more widespread. OPAT therapy can be used to treat certain patients who have cellulitis. The decision as to which patients to treat at home must be based on local PCT guidelines—not all patients are suitable for OPAT. OPAT improves patient quality of life by delivering care in the patient's home. This is highly skilled work and the community nurse must have appropriate training and support in order to gain the skills required.

PMID: 18981968 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy with daptomycin: insights from a patient registry

Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy with daptomycin: insights from a patient registry

Int J Clin Pract. 2008 Aug

Martone WJ, Lindfield KC, Katz DE.
Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Lexington, MA 02421, USA.

AIM: To compare and contrast the characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients who have received daptomycin as outpatients and inpatients.

METHODS: The Cubicin Outcomes Registry and Experience (CORE) is a retrospective chart review of patients who have received daptomycin in participating institutions. Patients treated in 2005 were included in this analysis. Demographic characteristics and clinical outcomes (success = cured + improved) were compared among patients who received outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) and patients who had received inpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (IPAT).

RESULTS: Of 1172 patients reported by 52 CORE 2005 participating institutions/investigators, 949 (81.0%) patients were evaluable: 539 (56.8%) received OPAT (OPAT patients), and 410 (43.2%) received only IPAT (IPAT patients). Of the 539 OPAT patients, 273 (50.6%) also received some IPAT, usually preceding OPAT therapy. Successful outcomes [no. of successes/(no. of successes + no. of failures)] for OPAT patients vs. IPAT patients were 94.6% and 86.3% respectively (chi-square test, p <>

CONCLUSIONS: Outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy use was common (539/949 or 56.8%) among patients in CORE 2005. Clinical outcomes among OPAT patients appeared at least as good as or better than IPAT patients. Better outcomes among OPAT patients were most likely because of patient selection for OPAT. Additional studies should focus on clinical characteristics of patients who would be ideal candidates for daptomycin OPAT.

Wiley InterScience

Wednesday, November 12, 2008

Daptomycin in bone and joint infections: a review of the literature.

Daptomycin in bone and joint infections: a review of the literature.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2008 Nov 7

Rice DA, Mendez-Vigo L.
St. Joseph's/Candler Health System, Savannah, GA, USA.

INTRODUCTION: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of daptomycin, a novel antibiotic for the treatment of bone and joint infections, a literature search of relevant articles was conducted.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PubMed/MEDLINE search (1990-April 2008) to identify relevant English-language literature was conducted. Search terms included bone and joint infection, osteomyelitis, daptomycin, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Additional articles were identified by reviewing the bibliographies of articles cited. Programs and abstracts from infectious disease meetings were searched, and prescribing information of antibiotics indicated for bone and joint infections consulted. All articles identified from data sources published in English were evaluated.

RESULTS: Caused primarily by Gram-positive pathogens such as S. aureus and, to a lesser extent, Enterococcus faecalis, bone and joint infections are difficult to treat successfully. Surgical intervention and prolonged courses of antibiotics are frequently required, and failure of first-line antibiotic therapy is common. The emergence of S. aureus strains with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin, the longstanding gold standard for bone and joint infections, has complicated the clinical scenario. Few randomized trials comparing the efficacy of different antibiotics for bone and joint infections exist. Daptomycin, a novel intravenous lipopeptide antibiotic, has shown potent in vitro activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria, including many resistant pathogens commonly associated with bone and joint infections such as MRSA and vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. Early clinical investigation of daptomycin in bone and joint infections unresponsive to antibiotics, such as vancomycin, has found a cure rate of approximately 80%, with a low incidence of adverse events and drug resistance.

CONCLUSION: Further studies are warranted to determine if limited clinical evidence, described in individual case reports and a daptomycin-specific retrospective registry, suggests daptomycin is a promising option for patients with bone and joint infections such as MRSA osteomyelitis.


Pivmecillinam versus sulfamethizole for short-term treatment of uncomplicated acute cystitis in general practice: A randomized controlled trial.

Pivmecillinam versus sulfamethizole for short-term treatment of uncomplicated acute cystitis in general practice: A randomized controlled trial.

Scand J Prim Health Care. 2008 Nov

Bjerrum L, Gahrn-Hansen B, Grinsted P.
Research Unit for General Practice, University of Southern Denmark.


To investigate whether short-term treatment with pivmecillinam was more effective than sulfamethizole in patients with acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). Design. Randomized controlled trial. Setting. General practice, Denmark.


Patients (n =167) with uncomplicated UTI confirmed by positive urine phase-contrast microscopy. Main outcome measures. Drug efficacy based on clinical and bacteriological cure.


Urinary symptoms disappeared first in patients treated with pivmecillinam, but after five days there was no significant difference in clinical cure rate between the two antibiotics. At the follow-up visit 7-10 days after initiation of treatment, 95.4% of patients treated with pivmecillinam and 92.6% of patients treated with sulfamethizole had no persistent cystitis symptoms (difference 2.8%, CI -4.5%; 10.0%).

Bacteriological cure was observed in 68.8% of patients randomized to pivmecillinam and in 77.9% randomized to sulfamethizole (difference -9.2%, CI -24.7%; 6.3%). Some 26.8% of patients randomized to pivmecillinam experienced a new UTI within 6 months after treatment compared with 18.4% of patients randomized to sulfamethizole (difference 8.4%, CI -4.5%;21.4%). No patients developed septicaemia with urinary pathogens within one year after initial treatment.


Patients treated with a three-day regime of pivmecillinam experienced faster relief of symptoms compared with patients treated with a three-day regime of sulfamethizole. Five days after initiation of treatment there was no significant difference in clinical and bacteriological cure between the two antibiotic regimes.


Tuesday, November 04, 2008

Do we still need the aminoglycosides?

Do we still need the aminoglycosides?

Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008 Oct 29

Durante-Mangoni E, Grammatikos A, Utili R, Falagas ME.
Unit of Infectious & Transplant Medicine, 2nd University of Naples, Monaldi Hospital, Naples, Italy.

Since the introduction into clinical practice of the aminoglycoside class of antibiotics, a number of other antimicrobial agents with improved safety profile have entered the market. Studies have failed to demonstrate the superiority of aminoglycoside-containing regimens in a number of infection settings. This has raised doubts regarding the actual clinical utility of aminoglycosides. However, the recent emergence of infections due to Gram-negative bacterial strains with advanced patterns of antimicrobial resistance has prompted physicians to reconsider these 'old' antibacterial agents. This revived interest in the use of aminoglycosides has brought back to light the debate on the two major issues related to these compounds, namely the spectrum of antimicrobial susceptibility and toxicity. Although some of the aminoglycosides retain activity against the majority of Gram-negative clinical bacterial isolates in many parts of the world, the relatively frequent occurrence of nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity during aminoglycoside treatment make physicians reluctant to use these compounds in everyday practice. We believe that recent advances in the understanding of the effect of various dosage schedules of aminoglycosides on toxicity combined with the retained (to a considerable degree) activity against the majority of Gram-negative bacterial isolates make this class of antibiotics still valuable in today's clinical practice.

PMID: 18976888 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Rational antibiotic therapy of urinary tract infections

Rational antibiotic therapy of urinary tract infections

Med Monatsschr Pharm. 2008 Oct

Wagenlehner FM, Naber KG, Weidner W.
Klinik und Poliklinik für Urologie und Kinderurologie, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, Rudolf-Buchheim-Str. 7, 35385 Giessen.

Rational antibiotic therapy of urinary tract infections Urinary tract infections (UTI) are frequent infections in the outpatient and nosocomial setting. Generally UTI can be stratified into uncomplicated and complicated infections with respect to treatment options. Uncomplicated UTI are mainly caused by E. coli, whereas complicated UTI exhibit a broader bacterial spectrum with a higher rate of multiresistant uropathogens. On the other hand increasing resistance rates are also found in uncomplicated UTI, e.g. against aminopenicillins, Co-trimoxazol and increasingly also fluoroquinolones. This fact has to be considered in the empirical therapy. Recurrent UTI are frequently found in young, sexually active women, and postmenopausal women. In complicated UTI the complicating factors have to be diagnosed and treated additionally to the antibiotic treatment. If not treated, a severe UTI and urosepsis can develop.

PMID: 18972869 [PubMed - in process]