Rational antibiotic use.
J Infect Dev Ctries. 2009 Mar
Tunger O, Karakaya Y, Cetin CB, Dinc G, Borand H.
Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Development of resistance to antimicrobial agents and increase of cost as the result of unnecessary and inappropriate use of antibiotics has become a global health problem. Therefore many strategies, which are aimed at optimizing antibiotic therapy, have been developed until now. In Turkey, an antibiotic restriction policy as a governmental solution was applied to decrease the antibiotic use and especially costs by Ministry of Health in 2003. The aim of this study is to evaluate the rational antibiotic use and the impact of the implementation of new restriction policy, with their reinforcement by infectious disease specialist, on the hospital wide use of antibiotics.
METHODOLOGY: The data of the inpatients received antibiotics (n=495) during January-June 2006 were compared with our previous study performed by the same methodology before the restriction policy in 1998. In both studies, prospective active daily surveillance of patients was performed by three infectious disease specialists. The appropriateness of antibiotic therapy was determined using the criteria described by Kunin and Jones. The data were analyzed by using SPSS for Windows.
RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients were treated for burn cellulitis, 26 (70%) of whom were treated initially with continuous-infusion oxacillin. Other initial antibiotics were chosen because of concomitant infections, penicillin allergy, or development of cellulitis during treatment with a beta-lactam antibiotic. Oxacillin treatment was successful in 19 patients (73%). Success required an average of 5.16 days, with 1.53 days required for fever resolution and 0.89 days for resolution of leukocytosis. Seven patients who did not respond rapidly were switched to intravenous vancomycin an average of 2.4 days after starting oxacillin, leading to a 100% success rate. There were no deaths, and only one suspected case of allergic reaction to oxacillin. In eleven patients treated with other antibiotics, the success rate was 75%. Success with these drugs required a longer treatment course of 6.45 days. Leukocytosis resolved significantly more slowly at 4.45 days -p equals 0.02-, and fever resolution was also slower at 3.18 days.
CONCLUSIONS: Continuous-infusion oxacillin was successful in the treatment of 73% of patients, a success rate that might have been higher with clinical patience, and leukocytosis resolved faster than with other antibiotics. Failure of continuous-infusion oxacillin can be managed without clinical consequence by conversion to intravenous vancomycin.